German Shepherd Dog > Bartonella, Kills dog after spending 7 Grand (10 replies)
Bartonella, Kills dog after spending 7 Grand
by hunger4justice on 18 September 2011 - 14:24
|Man who attends our club just had a GSD who lost weight, fever, coughing, diagnosed with damage to his aoritc valve and endocardis. Afer spending 7 thousand in tests, treatment at a Vet School/Hospital they diagnosed Bartonella, a tick, sand flea, mosquito born gram negative infection. The cardiac damage is irreversable and the dog will probably be euthanized in the next day or so. I never heard of it and here are exerpts from a scholarly article that talks about a similar case. Treatment is possible if caught early.|
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii endocarditis in a dog from Saskatchewan
A dog referred for lameness was diagnosed with culture-negative endocarditis. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were detected. Antibiotic treatment resulted in transient clinical improvement, but the dog developed cardiac failure and was euthanized. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype IV was identified within the aortic heart valve lesions by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing.
A 9 year-old, intact male, German shepherd dog was referred to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) with a 2-month history of intermittent mild lameness involving the right hind and the left fore limb. There were no historical abnormalities other than the lameness and reluctance to exercise.
Echocardiography showed moderate irregular hyperechoic thickening of all aortic valve leaflets, most consistent with endocarditis
Approximately 8 mo after initial presentation, the dog developed early congestive heart failure, characterized by weight loss (3 kg), cough, and exercise intolerance.
The dog’s cardiac status continued to decline. The dog also developed progressive rear limb weakness and incoordination, with slightly decreased conscious proprioception and normal spinal reflexes. The dog returned to the WCVM for euthanasia approximately 10 mo after the initial presentation.
Bartonella spp. comprise a group of small gram-negative bacilli that cause chronic intraerythrocytic and endothelial cell infections (1). With the exception of B. bacciliformis and B. quintana, most Bartonella spp. have been isolated and identified as human pathogens only since the early 1990s. In 1993, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. henselae (the usual agent of cat scratch disease) were identified for the 1st time as causal agents of endocarditis in humans; since then, Bartonella infection has become known as an important cause of culture-negative endocarditis in humans
In 1993, the subspecies B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was first isolated and then classified from the blood of a dog with intermittent epistaxis and endocarditis
Current data suggest that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is transmitted throughout much of the USA and in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but seroprevalence data are limited
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is presumed to be transmitted to dogs by the bite of an infected tick (9). In some regions of the USA, dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis or Babesia canis are likely also to be seropositive for B. vinsoni (36% and 52%, respectively), suggesting that their tick vector.
The most commonly reported etiologic agents of infective endocarditis in dogs are staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacilli, and Bartonella spp. Physical examination of dogs with endocarditis usually reveals a cardiac murmur. Arrhythmias occur in 39% to
by hunger4justice on 18 September 2011 - 14:27
|72% of dogs with infective endocarditis, but it may be less common in dogs with infective endocarditis caused by Bartonella than with other organisms. Protein losing nephropathy or azotemia occurs in 28% to 60% of affected dogs, regardless of the causative organism. Lameness, a stilted gait, or joint swelling is common in dogs with infective endocarditis due to the presence of immune-complex mediated “reactive” polyarthritis or, less commonly, septic arthritis|
by hunger4justice on 18 September 2011 - 14:31
|Blood cultures will reveal the causative organism in 40% to 80% of non-Bartonella-infected dogs, but they will rarely be positive in Bartonella-infected dogs. Recently, approximately 20% to 50% of the culture-negative infective endocarditis cases in dogs in California have been reported to result from Bartonella spp. infection (11,12,34). Histologically, examination of heart valves from dogs with Bartonella endocarditis reveals a combination of fibrosis, mineralization, endothelial cell proliferation, and neovascularization that is distinct from endocarditis caused by culturable bacteria (11).Attempts to culture B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from the blood of healthy or sick dogs with serologic or molecular evidence of infection are often unsuccessful (1,6,15). Serology and PCR amplification of Bartonella DNA are the mainstays of diagnosis. Seroprevalence is relatively low, even in endemic regions, so detection of antibody in a sick dog provides strong clinical evidence for prior exposure and active infection (13,15,19,21,22). A titer of 1:64 or greater is considered positive (1). Antibody detection by means of indirect fluorescent antibody assays is reliable, but coinfection with multiple Bartonella spp. has been reported and there may be some cross-reactivity between B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (12,13). It also appears that antibodies to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii will disappear rapidly in antibiotic-treated dogs, which may well complicate serodiagnosis, depending on the timing of sample collection. Persistent release of Bartonella into the systemic circulation from infected heart valves most likely resulted in chronic antigenic stimulation and a detectable antibody titer in this dog, despite long-term administration of antibiotics.|
To date, an optimal protocol has not been established for the treatment of Bartonella
by hunger4justice on 18 September 2011 - 14:46
Bartonella vinsonii is an emerging bacterial pathogen of dogs that has been associated with endocarditis, lymphadenitis, granulomatous lesions, epistaxis, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, neurologic dysfunction, and potentially polyarthritis. The organism appears to be tick-transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and may be co-transmitted with Ehrlichia canis or Babesia canis. Concurrent infection with Bartonella may interfere with the expected therapeutic elimination of E. canis with doxycycline. Similar to Ehrlichia canis, some healthy dogs can be chronically infected. The role of B. vinsonii as a cause of other disease processes in dogs awaits the results of future research studies.
Treatment of bartonella infection in cats and dogs
The optimal treatment of bartonella infections in cats or dogs has not been established. Clinical and research observations suggest that therapeutic elimination of bartonella infections may be difficult to achieve, if not impossible. For severe life-threatening bartonella infections (endocarditis, myocarditis) initial treatment with a penicillin derivative (ampicillin, amoxicillin) and an aminoglycoside (amikacin) is currently recommended. For treatment of chronic disease manifestations or long-term treatment of endocarditis, a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin) or a combination of a penicillin derivative and a fluoroquinolone antibiotic would be recommended. Oral treatments should be administered for a minimum of six weeks.
by muttlover25 on 18 September 2011 - 17:04
|WOW never heard of it either. Horrible|
by GranvilleGSD on 18 September 2011 - 21:47
|My cat was dianosed with this nearly 10 years ago, he was treated and is still alive.|
by yellowrose of Texas on 18 September 2011 - 23:54
Does anyone other than me, wonder where, or why, we are all of a sudden coming up with some really weird rare diseases in our dogs???> I do not understand science or medical rules but I guess we are in for some rude awakenings in the coming years.
GOODNESS me...this one is horrible
by hunger4justice on 19 September 2011 - 15:03
|The strain that affects cats and also causes Cat Scratch Fever is different than the one that causes heart damage in especially German Shepherds and people. Same bacteria, but different strain. I posted this because often in German Shepherds it is not diagnosed in time or ever. Galaxy Labs in conjunction with North Carolina State has the only lab in the world that can diagnose this with certainty once the bacteria reaches a certain stage and though the titers are undetectable with less sophisticated testing the damage is being done. |
In the above case, the Oklahoma State University Veterinary School has to send the cultures to North Carolina State to get a diagnosis. The premier researcher in the world, who is diligently trying to work on a preventative vaccine is located in North Carolina, Ed Breitschwerdt.
Though the protocol for treatment has yet to be definitively established, providing the wrong antibiotic for this actually causes gram negative bacteria to release toxins into the blood. Failure to diagnose in time has devastating consequences in the German Shepherd.
by hunger4justice on 19 September 2011 - 15:07
Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.
Chang CC, Kasten RW, Chomel BB, Simpson DC, Hew CM, Kordick DL, Heller R, Piemont Y, Breitschwerdt EB.
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected.
by hunger4justice on 19 September 2011 - 15:17
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 May;1166:120-6.
Bartonella endocarditis: a pathology shared by animal reservoirs and patients.
Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Williams C, Wey AC, Henn JB, Maggi R, Carrasco S, Mazet J, Boulouis HJ, Maillard R, Breitschwerdt EB.
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Bartonellae were first recognized to cause endocarditis in humans in 1993 when cases caused by Bartonella quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. henselae were reported. Since the first isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii from a dog with endocarditis, this organism has emerged as an important pathogen in dogs and an emerging pathogen in people. Subsequently, four types of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii have been described, all of which have been associated with endocarditis in dogs. A limited number of dog endocarditis cases have also been associated with B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. quintana, and B. rochalimae. The second canine B. clarridgeiae endocarditis case is presented. The clinical and pathological characteristics of Bartonella endocarditis in dogs are similar to disease observed in humans, more often affecting the aortic valve, presenting with highly vegetative lesions with accompanying calcification, and in most instances high antibody titers. Pathological features in dogs include a combination of fibrosis, mineralization, endothelial proliferation, and neovascularization with variable inflammation. Endocarditis has also been described in animal species, which are the natural reservoir of specific Bartonella species, once thought to be solely healthy carriers of these pathogens. A few Bartonella endocarditis cases, including B. henselae, have been reported in cats in the USA and Australia. The second case of B. henselae type Houston I identified in the USA is presented. Furthermore, two cases of B. bovis endocarditis were recently described in adult cows from France. Finally, on-going investigation of valvular endocarditis in free-ranging Alaskan sea otters suggests the involvement of Bartonella species.
by Pharaoh on 19 September 2011 - 19:09
|Wow, what a horror show.|
I never see or hear coyotes, but this is coyote country.